Course Details

Diagnostic Radiography- Syllabus

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Radiology is the fastest developing branch of medicine, and has two divisions- Radiodiagnosis and Radiotherapy. Radiology service involve the Radiologists as well as Radiographers;so as well trained Radiographers should be available for efficient radiology work. The criteria for selection and training should be formulated with this in mind. Diagnostic radiology performed with Roentgen rays.

Diploma in Diagnostic Radiography

Course Guidelines & Framework Regulations, Curriculum, Syllabus

Eligibility The Minimum Qualification Is S S L C but Preference Will Be Given To +2 With Science Subjects. Both Men And Women Are Admitted. DIPLOMA Will be Issued Only to Successful Candidates
Duration 2 Years
Diagnostic Radiology(X-Ray) & Other options 1000 mA & 300 mA X-Ray Machine -1 C-Arm With Image Intensifier-1, E C G -2 C T, Cath Lab-(Optional)
Maximum Student Strength 20 Numbers
Medical Institute Medical Institute affiliated to KPPMA (Kerala State) Navajyothy Medical Institute with maximum student of 20 strength.
Class Rooms (25x10sq ft) 5
Multimedia Projector with laser Pointer
Library Minimum 100sq ft With Computers & Internet facility Minimum of 100 books
Teaching facilities Part time Lecturers ,cardiologist, Radiologists (Conventional and Interventional) Ortho specialist, ENT specialist, Pediatrics ,Radiology Technician (Tutor) etc.
Final Year Examination Theory Examination + Practical +Record +Viva voce
Academic Fee Rs.1.5 Lakhs
Inspection authority Director of Radiation safety (D R S)Kerala, issued by the institute.

Brief Subject Title To Be Coverd

Main Subjects
1st Year (Semester I & II )
1 Anatomy and Physiology
2 Basic Physics.
3 Electrical and Radiation Physics.
4 Positioning in Radiography and Topographic Anatomy
5 Patient care during radiographic examination
6 Principles of Radiographic Exposure and Medical Emergencies
II nd Year (Semester III & IV)
7 Radiation protection
8 Special X-Ray investigations
9 Dark room chemistry and techniques.
10 Pediatric Radiography.
11 Medical-Surgical Diseases
12 Ethics and Supervised film critique sessions

NOTE: Communication medium: English
All the subjects with practical included in the final year examination and issue the certificate to the successful candidates.

Patron Dr Jones P Mathew MBBS
Director Asokan A P Bsc DRT (Radiographer)
Dept. of Radiology Dr C P Mathew MBBS, MS, DMRD, DMRT (Rtd. Prof. of Radiology Government Medical College Kottayam)

Disciplinary Regulations

The Hostellers Administration And Discipline at The Hostels Are Governed by Hostel Rules. The Hostellers Are Responsible to Maintain all Furniture, Fan, Bulbs, Electrical Fittings, Sanitary Fittings etc…. Their Respective Room and Hostel.

Location of Institute

The Institute is Located at The Centre of Vaikom, Near Boat Jetty By Walk, 5 Minutes from K.S.R.T.C.Bus Stand.Vaikom Is located 33 Kilometers Away From Ernakulum Railway Station. From Ernakulum K.S.R.T.C. Bus Stand There Are Buses to Vaikom And Via Vaikom.

General Rules

  • The 1 st Installment of Fee Should Be Paid at The Time of Admission.
  • The Students Are To Remit Their Monthly Fee on or Before 5th of every month. The Students Who Are Note Remitted Fee Will Not Be Allowed To Enter In The Class After 10th.
  • If The Student Behave Against The Rules And Discipline of The Institute His/her Will Be Dismissed From The Institute.
  • The Fees Once Remitted Will Not Be Refunded Under Any Circumstances.
  • The Students Must Obey And Behave According To The Rules Of The Institution And In Hostels.

First year Semester 1400 Hours and Practical 1000 Hours

Subjects & Number of hours
Anatomy and Physiology 300 Hours
Basic Physics. 150 Hours
Electrical and Radiation Physics 300 Hours
Positioning in Radiography, Topographic Anatomy. 350 Hours
Patient care during radiographic examination. 250 Hours
Exposure Principles of Radiographic 50 Hours

Subject contents

1. Anatomy & Physiology

Typical cell Tissues structure of skeletal system. Bones and ossifications, Joints of upper limb, lower limb, shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle, vertebral column , thorax, skull and Locomotor system, skeletal system, Circulatory system, Respiratory system, Lymphatic system, Reticulo- endothelial system, Digestive system, Genito-urinary system, Muscular system, Endocrine system, Nervous system, Cranial Nervesand CSF, Special Sense Nerves organs: Eye, Ear, Tongue, Surface markings and Cell function, Function of tissues. Function of bones and joints. Physiology of circulation, Physiology of respiratory system. Function of Lymphatic system. Function of Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid , adrenal, thymus, pancreas and gonads. Function of brain and the nerves. Function of the eye and the ear. Functions of Reproduction system and pregnancy rule, method of Family Planning.

2. Basic Physics

Measurements and Units, heat,Energy and Mechanics, Electricity and Magnetism, laws of magnetic force, electrostastics, conductors and insulators ,capacity and condenser DC, AC.. Basic electronics. Two phase and three phase,Transformer s (Step up and step down) Rectification (Two wave and three wave) ampere, coulomb, electromagnetic induction ,line Voltage, power, RMS values, Diodes ,ammeters and volt meters, Circuits, Ohms Law and Faraday’s Law,solenoids

3. Electrical and Radiation Physics

Electro-magnetic radiation ,Electro Magnetic Spectrum, Production of X-rays, Thermionic emission, ionization by Xrays, roentgen, target material ,Coolidge tube, Properties of X-rays,cooling of Xray tube, Interaction of Radiation with matter, induction experiments, Radioactivity, Measurement of Radiation, ionization measurements, radiation units ,R B E, LET,Biological effects of radiation, Radiation protection, Code of practice, Protective materials and methods, Personnel monitoring.(Film badge and T L D) Cassettes ,Films and Grid (Stationary ,rotating, parallel ,crossed, focused pseudo focused.)

4. Positioning in Radiography & Topographic Anatomy

It Includes Supervised Theoretical and Practical Study of Positioning of patients For different Radiological Projections and special views. Different radiological baselines, different Surface anatomy including vertebral levels and boney projections. Erect supine and oblique positions, care and management of X ray tubes, positioning of causality patients, care of pre and post surgical patients, positioning for portable machines, infants and children, different tube angulations. Identification of the side of patients

5. Patient care during Radiographic Examination

Radiation protection ,shielding, Hospital staffing and organization. Records relating to patients and departmental statistics, Professional attitudes. Communication. Medico legal aspects. Appointment Units. Patient psychology. Counselling, Management of Wheel chair and stretcher patients. Nursing care. First aid. Care of unconscious patients. Preparation of patients for X-ray examinations. infection control. Sterilization ,Emergency, Drugs in the X-ray department, Contrast agents. Hypersensitivity and reaction to contrast agents, Medical Terminology, Management of medical hazards patients. Hygiene and sterility, dressing code of male and female patients. Patients with supporting medium, fracture and dislocations

6. Principles of Radiographic Exposure

Radiation protection, time of exposure, milli ampearage, transformers, tube current ,anode and cathode , shielding, vacuum tube ,thermionic emission, properties of X-rays filtration, HVL. coolidge tube, cooling of X ray tube, collimation, heating, protective barriers, secondary radiation, primary beam, grids, insulation, room lay out. time management, identification of different errors and their rectifications, exposure control with respect to the patients condition

Second year Semester 1500 Hours and Practical 900 Hours
Subjects & Number of hours
Radiation protection 150 Hours
Special X-Ray investigations. 400 Hours
Dark room chemistry and Techniques. 400 Hours
Pediatric Radiography. 250 Hours
Medical-Surgical Diseases. 100 Hours
Ethics and Supervised Film critique sessions. 100 Hours

7. Radiation Protection

Principles of radiation protection, shielding and collimation, different gonad shields, lead aprons, secondary protection barriers ,time, principles of radiation attenuation, filters. aluminum filters, Half value layer, Radiation monitoring devices. distance management, gonads protection, ten day rule, secondary lead barriers, shielding of radiographic and dark rooms, measurement of radiation exposure ,care of younger patients, protection of the public, alarm and monitoring devices, protection symbols, cubicle, protection of unexposed films and cassettes, warning signs and safety boards

8. Special X-Ray investigations.

Special radiological procedures ,intravenous pylogram, micturating cysto urethrogram,carotid angiogram ,cerebral angiogram,coronary angiogram,Angioplasty,Discography.oral cholecystogram,cholangiography,Myelography,Sialography,Barium swallow,Barium meal follow through,Barium enema,Double contrast study,hysterosalphingography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, Dacryo-cystography Digital substaction angiography, bronchography, Lymphangiography ,Arthrography, pelvimetry, cephalometry,mammography, fluoroscopy,cineradiography,contrast agents (ionic and non ionic), emergency medicines, contrast reactions.

9. Dark room chemistry and Techniques

Chemicals for developer and fixer, tanks,temperature and humidity control, pH values,density, hardening,developing and fixing of exposed films,chemical processing, changing of chemicals,washing, hangers,dryers, intensifying screens and their interactions with Xrays, cassettes,safelights and room lights,dark room adaptations,red goggles.Lay out of Dark room, Wet and Dry areas, care and management of unexposed films, cleaning of hangers and screens, statistics of films , introduction of automatic processing

10. Paediatric Radiography

Radiation protection of infants, invertogram, care of infants ,oral and local anesthesia, first aid ,topographic anatomy, managements of children with fracture and dislocations, special skull projections, chest Xray management ,pre and post surgical patients, care of neonates, portable radiography, different erect views, shields, incubator, variations in the exposure factors, size`of films, counseling

11. Medical-Surgical Diseases.

Common pathological terms, shock,inflammation,infections,neoplasms,disorders,tumours (benign and malignant) infarcts,ulcers and necrosis, gout,rheumatism, embolism, haemophilia, HIV paralysis,neuralgia,sarcoma and carcinoma , tracheoestomy and colostomy patients, patients with emergency tubes, pre and post surgical patients, patients with metallic supports, pacemaker,vertebral dislocations and fractures, amputation,

12. Ethics and Supervised film critique sessions.

Medical ethics ,radiological ethics, guidelines , daily management of critical patients,storage of films,exposed and un exposed films ,statistics of different films, loading and unloading of,

Practical / Clinical experience

During two year the students are placed in x-ray departments on a alternate basis to gain practical experience in relevant areas under supervision of Tutor radiographers and the senior radiographers.

They have to maintain a record of their work in the ‘Student Record of Practical work” provided by the school.

End of term theory examination:

Written test conducted at end of First and second semesters, And third and fourth semesters.

End of term practical/oral examination:

Practical exam and viva examination at end of First and second semesters, And third and fourth semesters

Evaluation and assessment;-

80% attendance is a must to appear for the final examinations. Periodic evaluation should be done every semester both in theory and practical. 15% of final exam should be from intern assessment and rest 85% from theory and practical.

Text Books to be Read

  • Anatomy and Physiology for Radiographers – C A Werrick
  • Physics for Radiography - Hay and Hughs
  • Positioning in Radiology- Clarks
  • Radiographic positions and procedures - Merrill’s atlas
  • Paediatric orthopediatric Radiology – by Ozonoff
  • Radiographic latent image processing – W. E. J Mckinney
  • Radiographic Imaging - Derrick
  • Physics and photography principles of Medical Radiography – Seeman And Herman.
  • First Aid – Haugher and Gardner

Reference Books

  • Surface and Radiological Anatomy – Hamilton et al (Heffer)
  • Anatomy and Physiology for Radiographers- C.A. Werrick
  • Basic Radiological Physics – Thayalan
  • Care of patient in diagnostic Radiography – Chesney & Chesney.
  • Practical Nursing and First Aid – Ross and Wilson.
  • American journal of Roentgenology (AJR).
  • British Journal of Radiology.
  • Quality Control Recommentation For Diagnostic Radiography
  • Radiological Clinics of North America
  • ALARA Magazine issued by ISRT

Question Paper Pattern

Sessions No. of questions Marks per question Total Marks
Essays 3 10 30
Short Notes 8 5 40
One ward Answer 15 2 30
Total 100

Examination of Final Year

Part Theory Practicals & Viva
PAPER-I Anatomy and Physiology Identification of Bones and Structures
PAPER-II Basic Physics, Identification of Electrical Equipments
PAPER-III Electrical and Radiation Physics Equipments related to X-Ray Exposure
PAPER-IV Positioning in Radiography and Topography Anatomy Positioning for different Radiological Projections
PAPER-V Patient care during Radiographic examination Radiation Protection and Management
PAPER-VI Principles of Radiographic Exposure Factors ,KVP , mAs and Protective Barriers
PAPER-VII Radiation Protection Shielding ,collimation and patient care
PAPER-VIII Special X-Ray investigations Contrast agents, special radiological procedures
PAPER-IX Dark room chemistry and Techniques Developing, Fixing ,Washing and dark Room Adaptations
PAPER-X Pediatric Radiography Management Of Infants, Different Radiographic Projections Of Children
PAPER-XI Medical-Surgical Diseases Management Of Pre and Post Surgical Patients
PAPER-XII Ethics and Supervised film critique sessions Ethics of Radiology
Theory 100
Practical 150
Viva & Voice 50
Intern assessment 50